Thursday, January 1, 2015

THE UNIFICATION OF QUANTUM PHYSICS, RELATIVITY AND THE TDVP THEORY OF EVERYTHING

Note: this is the fIFth installment of consciousness and the theory of everything. for best comprehension It is advisable to read them in order.

THE UNIFICATION OF QUANTUM PHYSICS, RELATIVITY AND THE TDVP THEORY OF EVERYTHING

Unifying Quantum Physics and Relativity
The full unification of quantum physics and relativity is brought about in TDVP by applying the tools of CoDD and Dimensional Extrapolation21 to the mathematical expressions of three well-established features of reality, recognized in the current scientific paradigm: 1.) quantization of mass and energy as two forms of the same essential substance of reality; 2.) introduction of time as a fourth dimension, and 3.) the limitation of the velocity of rotational acceleration to light speed, c. In this process, the need for a more basic unit of quantization is identified, and when it is defined, the reason there is something rather than nothing becomes clear.

Einstein recognized that mass and energy are interchangeable forms of the physical substance of the universe, and discovered that their mathematical equivalence is expressed by the equation E=mc2. In TDVP, accepting the relativistic relationship of mass and energy at the quantum level, we proceed, based on Planck’s discovery, to describe quantized mass and energy as the content of quantized dimensional distinctions of extent. This allows us to apply the CoDD to quantum phenomena as quantum distinctions and describe reality at the quantum level as integer multiples of minimal equivalence units. This replaces the assumption of conventional mathematical physics that mass and energy can exist as dimensionless points analogous to mathematical singularities.

The assumption of dimensionless physical objects works for most calculations in practical applications because our units of measurement are so extremely large, compared to the actual size of elementary quanta, that the quanta appear to be existing as mathematical singularities, i.e. dimensionless points. (The electron mass, e.g., is about 1x10-30 kg, with a radius of about 3x10-15 meter.) Point masses and point charges, etc. are simply convenient fictions for macro-scale calculations. The calculus of Leibniz and Newton works beautifully for this convenient fiction because it incorporates the fiction mathematically by assuming that the numerical value of a function describing the volume of a physical feature of reality, like a photon or an electron, can become a specific discrete finite entity as the value of a real variable, like the measure of distance or time approaches zero asymptotically (i.e. infinitely closely). This is a mathematical description of a non-quantized reality. But we exist in a quantized reality.

Planck discovered that the reality we exist in is actually a quantized reality. This means that there is a “bottom” to physical reality; it is not infinitely divisible, and thus the calculus of Newton and Leibniz does not apply at the quantum level. This is one reason scientists applying Newtonian calculus to quantum mechanics declare that quantum reality is ‘weird’. The appropriate mathematical description of physical reality at the quantum level is provided by the calculus of distinctions with the relationships between the measureable minimum finite distinctions of elementary particles defined by integral solutions of the appropriate Diophantine equations. The mathematics of quanta is the mathematics of integers.

In TDVP we find that, for quantized phenomena, existing in a multi-dimensional domain consisting of space and time, embedded in one or more additional dimensional domains, the fiction of dimensionless objects, a convenient mathematical expedient when we did not know that physical phenomena are quantized, is no longer appropriate. We can proceed with a new form of mathematical analysis, the calculus of dimensional distinctions (CoDD), and treat all phenomena as finite, non-zero distinctions. Replacing the dimensionless points of conventional mathematical physics with distinctions of finite unitary volume, we can equate these unitary volumes of the elementary particles of the physical universe with integers. We can then relate the integers of quantum reality to the integers of number theory and explore the deep relationship between mathematics and reality.

In TDVP, we have also developed the procedure of Dimensional Extrapolation using dimensional invariants to move beyond three dimensions of space and one of time. Within the multi-dimensional domains defined in this way, mass and energy are measures of distinctions of content. If there are other dimensions beyond the three of space and one of time that are available to our physical senses, how are they different, and do they contain additional distinctions of content? If so, how is such content different from mass and energy? We know that mass and energy are two forms of the same thing. If there are other forms, what is the basic “stuff” that makes up the universe? Is it necessarily a combination of mass and energy, - or something else? For the sake of parsimony, let’s begin by assuming that the substance of reality, whatever it is, is multi-dimensional and uniform at the quantum level, and that mass and energy are the most easily measurable forms of it in the 3S-1t domain. This allows us to relate the unitary measure of inertial mass and its energy equivalent to a unitary volume, and provides a multi-dimensional framework to explore the possibility that the “stuff” of reality may exist in more than two forms.

The smallest distinct objects making up the portion of reality apprehended by the physical senses in 3S-1t, i.e. that which we call physical reality, are spinning because of asymmetry and the force of the natural universal expansion that occurs as long as there is no external resistance. If there were no additional dimensions and/or features to restore symmetry, and no limit to the acceleration of rotational velocity, physical particles would contract to nothingness, any finite universe would expand rapidly to maximum entropy as predicted by the second law of thermodynamics for finite systems. But, due to the relativistic limit of light speed on the accelerated rotational velocity of elementary particles in 3S-1t, the quantized content of the most elementary particle must conform to the smallest possible symmetric volume, because contraction to a smaller volume would accelerate the rotational velocity of the localized particle to light speed in 3S-1t, making its mass (inertial resistance) infinite. That minimal volume occupied by the most elementary of particles is the finite quantum distinction replacing the infinitesimal of Newton/Leibniz calculus, and it provides the logical volumetric equivalence unit upon which to base all measurements of the substance of reality.

We can define this minimal volume as the unitary volume of extent, and its content as the unitary quantity of mass and energy. The mass/energy relationship (E=mc2) is linear, since in the 3S-1t context, c2 is a constant, allowing us to define unitary mass and unitary energy as the quantity of each that can occupy the finite rotational unitary volume. This fits nicely with what we know about elementary particles: All elementary particles behave in the same way prior to impacting on a receptor when encountering restricting physical structures like apertures or slits. A particle of unitary mass occupying a unitary volume could be an electron, and a particle of unitary energy occupying a unitary volume before expansion as radiant energy, could be a photon. Einstein explained this equivalence between electrons and photons and Planck’s constant in a paper published in 1905. ref

This brings us to a very interesting problem: what happens when we combine multiples of the unitary volumes of mass/energy to form more complex particles? How do we obtain protons and neutrons to form the stable elemental structures of the physical universe?

When we view the spinning elementary particles of the 3S-1T physical universe from the perspective of a nine-dimensional reality, we can begin to understand how Planck was quite correct when he said “there is no matter as such”. What we call matter, measured as mass, is not really “material” at the quantum level. What is it then that we are measuring when we weigh a physical object? The real measurement of mass is not weight, which varies with relative velocity and location and can be zero without any loss of substance; it is inertia, the resistance to motion. The illusion of solid matter arises from the fact that elementary particles resist accelerating forces due to the fact that they are spinning like tiny gyroscopes, and they resist any force acting to move them out of their planes of rotation. An elementary particle spinning in all three orthogonal planes of space resists lateral movement equally in any direction, and the measurement of that resistance is interpreted as mass.

Mass and energy, the two known forms of the substance of the physical universe, embedded in a nine-dimensional domain, form stable structures only under very specific mathematical and dimensionometric conditions. Without these conditions, no physical universe could exist because of the second law of thermodynamics23, which dictates that any finite physical system always decays toward maximum entropy, i.e. total disorder, lacking structure of any kind. If our universe were composed of random debris from an explosion originating from a mathematical singularity, because of the continuous operation of the second law of thermodynamics in an expanding debris field, simple particles accidentally formed by random mass/energy encounter, would decay before a new random encounter could occur and form a more complex combination, because the number random encounters would decrease as the debris field expands. If our physical universe is embedded in the nine-dimensional reality described by TDVP, it escapes this fate of dissolution. While it may change and evolve, its form, and even the way it evolves, will always reflect the intrinsic logical order and patterns of the transfinite substrate within which it is embedded. If this is correct, we have the answer to the question Leibniz regarded as the first and most important metaphysical question of all: We can explain why there is something instead of nothing.

Unifying Particle Physics and TDVP
Quantum physics, especially the resolution of the EPR paradox, tells us that reality at the quantum level is like an all-encompassing interwoven multi-dimensional tapestry, but because of the extreme smallness of the quantized structure, far smaller than we are able to see directly, even with the best technological extensions of our physical senses, we are directly aware only of the broad-brush features that seem to exist as separate objects. We have tried repeatedly, over the history of modern science, to identify the most basic building blocks of physical reality, starting with large structures like cells, molecules and atoms, proceeding to smaller and smaller objects, only to have them slip through the finer and finer-scale net of our search. Relativity and quantum physics tell us, however, that there is an end to this, a limit to this infinite descent of spinning particles, a bottom to our search: the smallest possible particle, the minimum quantum equivalence unit.

TDVP suggests that the forms of physical reality are reflections of the intrinsic logical patterns existing behind the reality perceived through our physical senses in 3S-1t. The form of this logical structure, much like the conceptualized blueprint of a building in the mind of an architect, is conveyed to the 3S-1T domain of the physical universe through the dimensionometric structure of a spinning nine-dimensional finite universe, in the form of the conveyance equations. The force causing spinning motions in the finite distinctions of physical reality is the continuous force of universal expansion. The fact that expansion is uniform and continuing, perhaps even accelerating, indicates that there is nothing outside the universe to impede or alter uniform expansion. As part of the nine-dimensional universe, the maximum expansion velocity between two farthermost separated points in a quantized 3S-1T reality is light speed, a speed determined by the mass/energy ratio in the observable universe: c = (E/m).

The mathematical expression of the conveyance of logical structure can be derived by application of the CoDD and Dimensional Extrapolation to the elementary distinctions of extent and content revealed by the empirical data obtained in particle colliders, under the integer requirement of quantization. Particle collider data provides us with an indirect glimpse of the origin of the elementary structures that makes up the limited portion of reality observable in 3S-1t. Using particle collider data and the mathematical principles of quantum physics and relativity, we can derive the equations describing the combination of elementary particles to form stable sub-atomic structures. Because we exist in a quantized reality, these equations will be Diophantine equations, i.e. equations with integer solutions. We call the general mathematical expression summarizing these equations the Conveyance Expression because it contains within it the mathematical relationships that convey and limit the logical structure of the transfinite substrate through the sequentially embedded nine dimensional domains of finite distinction to the 3S-1t domain of physical observation and measurement.

Within the framework of the current Standard Model of particle physics, the basic concepts of quantum physics and relativity are applied to the particle collider data to yield numerical values of the physical characteristics of the sub-atomic particles perceived to be the building blocks of the observable universe, including photons, electrons, neutrons and protons, in units of MeV/c2. Analysis of these data in the framework of the mathematics and geometry of TDVP in 3S-1t provides us with a way to find the true quantum unit of measurement. The empirically measured and statistically determined inertial masses of the three most basic elementary entities believed to make up what we perceive in 3S-1t as matter, i.e. electrons, up-quarks and down-quarks, are approximately 0.51, 2.4 and 4.8 MeV/c2, respectively. The values for up and down quarks are derived statistically from millions of terabytes of data obtained from high-energy particle collisions engineered in specially-built colliders.

It is obvious from these data that the conventional unit: MeV/c2 is not the basic quantum unit, because the data expressed in these units contain fractions of MeV/c2 units. Max Planck discovered that energy and matter occur only in integer multiples of a specific finite unit of quantum action, not fractions of units. Therefore, the masses of the electron, up-quark and down-quark should be integer multiples of the basic quantum unit of mass/energy equivalence. Since the masses are fractional in MeV/c2 units, one MeV/c2 must be a multiple of a yet smaller truly quantum unit.

Except for the electron, the data for the mass/energy of the elementary particles, up and down quarks, in Table One below, are presented as ranges of values because the mass/energy of elementary particles are indirectly determined as energy equivalents from particle collider detector and collector data. Some measurement error can occur in any experiment, and even with the advances in technological precision from the first “atom smasher”, the Cockcroft-Walton particle accelerator, in 1932 to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) today, some measurement error is still unavoidable due to the extreme smallness of the phenomena and the indirect and delicate methods of measurement required in the interpretation of the data. The electron mass is considered to be one of the most fundamental constants of physics, and because of its importance in physical chemistry and electronics, great effort has been spent to determine its inertial mass very accurately at 0.511 MeV/c2.
The integer values in Table One are obtained by assuming that the electron has the least mass of any elementary particle, and is the smallest sub-atomic particle. Normalizing its mass to unity and determining the average masses of the up- and down-quarks as multiples of that unit, we have the normalized masses of the electron, up- and down-quarks. Using the latest available collider data, the mass/energy averages for the up- and down- quarks are 2.01 MeV/c2 and 4.79 MeV/c2 respectively. Dividing by 0.511 and rounding the nearest integer value, we have the normalized mass/energy equivalence for the electron, up- and down- quarks, as 1, 4 and 9 respectively. Using these normalized values, we can investigate how the finite distinctions they represent can combine to form protons, neutrons and the progressively more complex physical structures that make up the Elements of the Periodic Table.

TABLE ONE: Fermions
The Most Common Particles comprising the physical universe
 Particle Symbol Spin Charge Mass (Raw Data In MeV/c2) Mass/Volume (Normalized Average)* Electron e 1/2 -1 0.511 1 Up quark u 3/2 +2⁄3 1.87 – 2.15 4 Down Quark d 3/2 −1⁄3 4.63 – 4.95 9 Proton P+ 1/2 +1 740 - 1140** 1035**
* “Normalized” in this case means changing the average mass to the nearest integer value. This is justified on the grounds that the actual values must be integer multiples of the basic unit of quantized mass.
** The fact that the detected mass of the proton is nearly 100 times more than the combined mass of two up-quarks and one down-quark is explained in the Standard Model by gluons and bosons thought to exist in the space around the quarks, although they are not detectable until “teased” into existence by high-energy collisions. In TDVP we see this as evidence of the substrate, and suspect that it may be the so-called “dark matter” and dark energy” detected on the macro scale of galaxies that make up about 95% of the observable universe.
The smallest finite unit of volume is the smallest possible distinction of extent that can be occupied by an accelerated spinning vortex. This distinction of extent has a finite value because of the limit placed on the rotational velocity of any object possessing inertial mass by the light-speed limit of relativity. As our basic unit volume, we assign it the numerical value of 1. We can also define the minimal quantal units of measurement for mass and energy by setting their values at the limiting volume equal to 1 (unity), thus avoiding fractional results in measurements of quark mass energy and volume. Does this mean that there are actually sub-quark particles? Not necessarily. It only means that the mass/energy and volumes of quarks are multiples of the unitary mass/energy and volume of the smallest finite distinction. In order to understand how this works, we take a closer look at what happens when two or more sub-atomic particles combine.

In the 3S-1T domain of the physical universe, while we may conceptualize space, time, matter, and energy as separate aspects of reality, we never find one of them existing alone without the others. As Einstein stated, space has no meaning without matter, matter and energy are just two forms of the same thing, and time is meaningful only in relation to the dynamic interaction of spatially extended matter and energy ref. Clearly, if the goal is to gain an understanding of the true nature of reality, the usefulness of any observation or measurement is maximized and will be most meaningful if it includes all of the known parameters of reality. The minimal quantized distinction described above, from which we define new quantum units of observation and measurement, should therefore include not just space and mass, but space, time, mass, and energy. In the extended mathematical framework of TDVP, we have determined mathematically that it should include nine finite dimensions of extent and three forms of content ref. The dimensionometric mathematics of TDVP indicates that reality consists of three kinds of dimensions (extent) and three kinds of substance (content). The three kinds of dimensions are space-like, time-like and (we suggest) consciousness-like, while the three kinds of substance are matter, energy and another form of the stuff of reality, heretofore unrecognized by science, an essential conscious organizing aspect of reality, a primary form of consciousness.

For the present discussion and derivation of true quantum units, it is not necessary to identify the third kind of dimensional extent as consciousness-like, or the third form of content as consciousness itself. However, the likelihood that this is true is proposed here as a feasible hypothesis. TDVP was developed based on the hypothesis that consciousness is an integral part of reality and should be included in the equations of physics. Also, we consider TDVP a paradigm shift primarily because of the inclusion of consciousness, and if the third form is neither mass nor energy, a quantized form of the conscious substrate is the logical candidate. But many scientists regard this as very controversial, so it is for this reason that we emphasize the fact that what follows does not depend upon the hypothesis that consciousness is the third form of the stuff of reality, but primarily upon the logic of mathematical, geometrical and physical considerations

COMING INSTALLMENTS: Particle Physics, TRUE Units, and the Third Form of Reality.