Note: this is the fIFth installment of consciousness and the theory of everything. for best comprehension It is advisable to read them in order.
THE UNIFICATION OF QUANTUM PHYSICS, RELATIVITY AND THE TDVP THEORY OF EVERYTHING
Unifying
Quantum Physics and Relativity
The
full unification of quantum physics and relativity is brought about in TDVP by
applying the tools of CoDD and Dimensional Extrapolation^{21} to the
mathematical expressions of three wellestablished features of reality,
recognized in the current scientific paradigm: 1.) quantization of mass and
energy as two forms of the same essential substance of reality; 2.) introduction
of time as a fourth dimension, and 3.) the limitation of the velocity of
rotational acceleration to light speed, c.
In this process, the need for a more basic unit of quantization is identified,
and when it is defined, the reason there is something rather than nothing
becomes clear.
Einstein
recognized that mass and energy are interchangeable forms of the physical substance
of the universe, and discovered that their mathematical equivalence is
expressed by the equation E=mc^{2}.
In TDVP, accepting the relativistic relationship of mass and energy at the
quantum level, we proceed, based on Planck’s discovery, to describe quantized
mass and energy as the content of quantized dimensional distinctions of extent.
This allows us to apply the CoDD to quantum phenomena as quantum distinctions
and describe reality at the quantum level
as integer multiples of minimal equivalence units. This replaces the
assumption of conventional mathematical physics that mass and energy can exist
as dimensionless points analogous to mathematical singularities.
The
assumption of dimensionless physical objects works for most calculations in
practical applications because our units of measurement are so extremely large,
compared to the actual size of elementary quanta, that the quanta appear to be existing as mathematical
singularities, i.e. dimensionless points. (The electron mass, e.g., is about
1x10^{30 }kg, with a radius of about 3x10^{15 }meter.) Point
masses and point charges, etc. are simply convenient fictions for macroscale
calculations. The calculus of Leibniz and Newton works beautifully for this
convenient fiction because it incorporates the fiction mathematically by
assuming that the numerical value of a function describing the volume of a
physical feature of reality, like a photon or an electron, can become a
specific discrete finite entity as the value of a real variable, like the
measure of distance or time approaches zero asymptotically (i.e. infinitely
closely). This is a mathematical description of a nonquantized reality. But we
exist in a quantized reality.
Planck
discovered that the reality we exist in is
actually a quantized reality. This means that there is a “bottom” to
physical reality; it is not infinitely divisible, and thus the calculus of Newton and
Leibniz does not apply at the quantum level. This is one reason
scientists applying Newtonian calculus to quantum mechanics declare that
quantum reality is ‘weird’. The appropriate mathematical description of
physical reality at the quantum level is provided by the calculus of
distinctions with the relationships between the measureable minimum finite
distinctions of elementary particles defined by integral solutions of the
appropriate Diophantine equations. The
mathematics of quanta is the mathematics of integers.
In
TDVP we find that, for quantized phenomena, existing in a multidimensional
domain consisting of space and time, embedded in one or more additional
dimensional domains, the fiction of dimensionless objects, a convenient
mathematical expedient when we did not know that physical phenomena are
quantized, is no longer appropriate. We can proceed with a new form of
mathematical analysis, the calculus of dimensional distinctions (CoDD), and
treat all phenomena as finite, nonzero distinctions. Replacing the dimensionless
points of conventional mathematical physics with distinctions of finite unitary
volume, we can equate these unitary volumes of the elementary particles of the
physical universe with integers. We can then relate the integers of quantum
reality to the integers of number theory and explore the deep relationship
between mathematics and reality.
In
TDVP, we have also developed the procedure of Dimensional Extrapolation using
dimensional invariants to move beyond three dimensions of space and one of
time. Within the multidimensional domains defined in this way, mass and energy
are measures of distinctions of content. If there are other dimensions beyond
the three of space and one of time that are available to our physical senses,
how are they different, and do they contain additional distinctions of content?
If so, how is such content different from mass and energy? We know that mass
and energy are two forms of the same thing. If there are other forms, what is
the basic “stuff” that makes up the universe? Is it necessarily a combination
of mass and energy,  or something else? For the sake of parsimony, let’s begin
by assuming that the substance of reality, whatever it is, is multidimensional
and uniform at the quantum level, and that mass and energy are the most easily
measurable forms of it in the 3S1t domain. This allows us to relate the
unitary measure of inertial mass and its energy equivalent to a unitary volume,
and provides a multidimensional framework to explore the possibility that the
“stuff” of reality may exist in more than two forms.
The
smallest distinct objects making up the portion of reality apprehended by the
physical senses in 3S1t, i.e. that which we call physical reality, are
spinning because of asymmetry and the force of the natural universal expansion that
occurs as long as there is no external resistance. If there were no additional
dimensions and/or features to restore symmetry, and no limit to the
acceleration of rotational velocity, physical particles would contract to
nothingness, any finite universe would expand rapidly to maximum entropy as
predicted by the second law of thermodynamics for finite systems. But, due to
the relativistic limit of light speed on the accelerated rotational velocity of
elementary particles in 3S1t, the quantized content of the most elementary particle
must conform to the smallest possible
symmetric volume, because contraction to a smaller volume would accelerate the
rotational velocity of the localized particle to light speed in 3S1t, making
its mass (inertial resistance) infinite. That minimal volume occupied by the
most elementary of particles is the finite quantum distinction replacing the
infinitesimal of Newton/Leibniz calculus, and it provides the logical
volumetric equivalence unit upon which to base all measurements of the
substance of reality.
We
can define this minimal volume as the unitary volume of extent, and its content
as the unitary quantity of mass and energy. The mass/energy relationship (E=mc^{2}) is linear, since in
the 3S1t context, c^{2} is
a constant, allowing us to define unitary mass and unitary energy as the
quantity of each that can occupy the finite rotational unitary volume. This fits
nicely with what we know about elementary particles: All elementary particles
behave in the same way prior to impacting on a receptor when encountering
restricting physical structures like apertures or slits. A particle of unitary
mass occupying a unitary volume could be an electron, and a particle of unitary
energy occupying a unitary volume before expansion as radiant energy, could be
a photon. Einstein explained this equivalence between electrons and photons and
Planck’s constant in a paper published in 1905. ^{ref
}
This
brings us to a very interesting problem: what happens when we combine multiples
of the unitary volumes of mass/energy to form more complex particles? How do we
obtain protons and neutrons to form the stable elemental structures of the
physical universe?
When
we view the spinning elementary particles of the 3S1T physical universe from
the perspective of a ninedimensional reality, we can begin to understand how
Planck was quite correct when he said “there is no matter as such”. What we
call matter, measured as mass, is not really “material” at the quantum level.
What is it then that we are measuring when we weigh a physical object? The real
measurement of mass is not weight, which varies with relative velocity and
location and can be zero without any loss of substance; it is inertia, the resistance to motion. The illusion of solid matter arises from the
fact that elementary particles resist accelerating forces due to the fact that
they are spinning like tiny gyroscopes, and they resist any force acting to
move them out of their planes of rotation. An elementary particle spinning in
all three orthogonal planes of space resists lateral movement equally in any
direction, and the measurement of that resistance is interpreted as mass.
Mass
and energy, the two known forms of the substance of the physical universe,
embedded in a ninedimensional domain, form stable structures only under very specific
mathematical and dimensionometric conditions. Without these conditions, no
physical universe could exist because of the second law of thermodynamics^{23},
which dictates that any finite physical system always decays toward maximum
entropy, i.e. total disorder, lacking structure of any kind. If our universe
were composed of random debris from an explosion originating from a
mathematical singularity, because of the continuous operation of the second law
of thermodynamics in an expanding debris field, simple particles accidentally
formed by random mass/energy encounter, would decay before a new random encounter
could occur and form a more complex combination, because the number random
encounters would decrease as the debris field expands. If our physical universe
is embedded in the ninedimensional reality described by TDVP, it escapes this
fate of dissolution. While it may change and evolve, its form, and even the way
it evolves, will always reflect the intrinsic logical order and patterns of the
transfinite substrate within which it is embedded. If this is correct, we have the answer to the question Leibniz
regarded as the first and most important metaphysical question of all: We can
explain why there is something
instead of nothing.
Unifying
Particle Physics and TDVP
Quantum
physics, especially the resolution of the EPR paradox, tells us that reality at
the quantum level is like an allencompassing interwoven multidimensional tapestry,
but because of the extreme smallness of the quantized structure, far smaller
than we are able to see directly, even with the best technological extensions
of our physical senses, we are directly aware only of the broadbrush features
that seem to exist as separate objects. We have tried repeatedly, over the
history of modern science, to identify the most basic building blocks of
physical reality, starting with large structures like cells, molecules and
atoms, proceeding to smaller and smaller objects, only to have them slip through
the finer and finerscale net of our search. Relativity and quantum physics
tell us, however, that there is an end to this, a limit to this infinite
descent of spinning particles, a bottom to our search: the smallest possible
particle, the minimum quantum equivalence unit.
TDVP
suggests that the forms of physical reality are reflections of the intrinsic
logical patterns existing behind the reality perceived through our physical
senses in 3S1t. The form of this logical structure, much like the conceptualized
blueprint of a building in the mind of an architect, is conveyed to the 3S1T
domain of the physical universe through the dimensionometric structure of a
spinning ninedimensional finite universe, in the form of the conveyance equations.
The force causing spinning motions in the finite distinctions of physical
reality is the continuous force of universal expansion. The fact that expansion
is uniform and continuing, perhaps even accelerating, indicates that there is
nothing outside the universe to impede or alter uniform expansion. As part of
the ninedimensional universe, the maximum expansion velocity between two
farthermost separated points in a quantized 3S1T reality is light speed, a
speed determined by the mass/energy ratio in the observable universe: c = √(E/m).
The
mathematical expression of the conveyance of logical structure can be derived
by application of the CoDD and Dimensional Extrapolation to the elementary
distinctions of extent and content revealed by the empirical data obtained in
particle colliders, under the integer requirement of quantization. Particle
collider data provides us with an indirect glimpse of the origin of the
elementary structures that makes up the limited portion of reality observable
in 3S1t. Using particle collider data and the mathematical principles of
quantum physics and relativity, we can derive the equations describing the
combination of elementary particles to form stable subatomic structures. Because
we exist in a quantized reality, these equations will be Diophantine equations,
i.e. equations with integer solutions. We call the general mathematical
expression summarizing these equations the Conveyance
Expression because it contains within it the mathematical relationships that
convey and limit the logical structure of the transfinite substrate through the
sequentially embedded nine dimensional domains of finite distinction to the
3S1t domain of physical observation and measurement.
Within
the framework of the current Standard Model of particle physics, the basic
concepts of quantum physics and relativity are applied to the particle collider
data to yield numerical values of the physical characteristics of the subatomic
particles perceived to be the building blocks of the observable universe,
including photons, electrons, neutrons and protons, in units of MeV/c^{2}.
Analysis of these data in the framework of the mathematics and geometry of TDVP
in 3S1t provides us with a way to find the true quantum unit of measurement. The
empirically measured and statistically determined inertial masses of the three
most basic elementary entities believed to make up what we perceive in 3S1t as
matter, i.e. electrons, upquarks and downquarks, are approximately 0.51, 2.4
and 4.8 MeV/c^{2}, respectively. The values for up and down quarks are derived
statistically from millions of terabytes of data obtained from highenergy
particle collisions engineered in speciallybuilt colliders.
It
is obvious from these data that the conventional unit: MeV/c^{2} is not
the basic quantum unit, because the data expressed in these units contain
fractions of MeV/c^{2} units. Max Planck discovered that energy and
matter occur only in integer multiples of a specific finite unit of quantum action,
not fractions of units. Therefore, the masses of the electron, upquark and
downquark should be integer multiples of the basic quantum unit of mass/energy
equivalence. Since the masses are fractional in MeV/c^{2} units, one
MeV/c^{2} must be a multiple of a yet smaller truly quantum unit.
Except
for the electron, the data for the mass/energy of the elementary particles, up
and down quarks, in Table One below,
are presented as ranges of values because the mass/energy of elementary
particles are indirectly determined as energy equivalents from particle
collider detector and collector data. Some measurement error can occur in any
experiment, and even with the advances in technological precision from the
first “atom smasher”, the CockcroftWalton particle accelerator, in 1932 to the
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) today, some measurement error is still unavoidable due
to the extreme smallness of the phenomena and the indirect and delicate methods
of measurement required in the interpretation of the data. The electron mass is
considered to be one of the most fundamental constants of physics, and because
of its importance in physical chemistry and electronics, great effort has been
spent to determine its inertial mass very accurately at 0.511 MeV/c^{2}.
The integer values in Table One are obtained by
assuming that the electron has the least mass of any elementary particle, and
is the smallest subatomic particle. Normalizing its mass to unity and
determining the average masses of the up and downquarks as multiples of that
unit, we have the normalized masses of the electron, up and downquarks. Using
the latest available collider data, the mass/energy averages for the up and
down quarks are 2.01 MeV/c^{2} and 4.79 MeV/c^{2} respectively.
Dividing by 0.511 and rounding the nearest integer value, we have the normalized
mass/energy equivalence for the electron, up and down quarks, as 1, 4 and 9
respectively. Using these normalized values, we can investigate how the finite distinctions
they represent can combine to form protons, neutrons and the progressively more
complex physical structures that make up the Elements of the Periodic Table.
TABLE ONE: Fermions
The Most Common Particles comprising the physical universe
Particle

Symbol

Spin

Charge

Mass
(Raw Data
In MeV/c^{2})

Mass/Volume
(Normalized
Average)*

Electron

e

1/2

1

0.511

1

Up quark

u

3/2

+^{2}⁄_{3}

1.87 – 2.15

4

Down
Quark

d

3/2

−^{1}⁄_{3}

4.63 – 4.95

9

Proton

P^{+}

1/2

+1

740  1140^{**}

1035^{**}

*
“Normalized” in this case means changing the average mass to
the nearest integer value. This is justified on the grounds that the actual
values must be integer multiples of the basic unit of quantized mass.
** The fact that the
detected mass of the proton is nearly 100 times more than the combined mass of
two upquarks and one downquark is explained in the Standard Model by gluons
and bosons thought to exist in the space around the quarks, although they are
not detectable until “teased” into existence by highenergy collisions. In TDVP
we see this as evidence of the substrate, and suspect that it may be the
socalled “dark matter” and dark energy” detected on the macro scale of
galaxies that make up about 95% of the observable universe.
The
smallest finite unit of volume is the smallest possible distinction of extent that
can be occupied by an accelerated spinning vortex. This distinction of extent has
a finite value because of the limit placed on the rotational velocity of any
object possessing inertial mass by the lightspeed limit of relativity. As our
basic unit volume, we assign it the numerical value of 1. We can also define the
minimal quantal units of measurement for mass and energy by setting their
values at the limiting volume equal to 1 (unity), thus avoiding fractional
results in measurements of quark mass energy and volume. Does this mean that
there are actually subquark particles? Not necessarily. It only means that the
mass/energy and volumes of quarks are multiples of the unitary mass/energy and
volume of the smallest finite distinction. In order to understand how this
works, we take a closer look at what happens when two or more subatomic particles
combine.
In
the 3S1T domain of the physical universe, while we may conceptualize space,
time, matter, and energy as separate aspects of reality, we never find one of
them existing alone without the others. As Einstein stated, space has no
meaning without matter, matter and energy are just two forms of the same thing,
and time is meaningful only in relation to the dynamic interaction of spatially
extended matter and energy^{ ref}. Clearly,
if the goal is to gain an understanding of the true nature of reality, the
usefulness of any observation or measurement is maximized and will be most meaningful
if it includes all of the known parameters of reality. The minimal quantized
distinction described above, from which we define new quantum units of
observation and measurement, should therefore include not just space and mass,
but space, time, mass, and energy. In the extended mathematical framework of
TDVP, we have determined mathematically that it should include nine finite dimensions
of extent and three forms of content ^{ref}.
The dimensionometric mathematics of TDVP indicates that reality consists of three
kinds of dimensions (extent) and three kinds of substance (content). The three
kinds of dimensions are spacelike, timelike and (we suggest) consciousnesslike, while the three
kinds of substance are matter, energy and another form of the stuff of reality,
heretofore unrecognized by science, an essential conscious organizing aspect of
reality, a primary form of consciousness.
For
the present discussion and derivation of true quantum units, it is not necessary
to identify the third kind of dimensional extent as consciousnesslike, or the
third form of content as consciousness itself. However, the likelihood that
this is true is proposed here as a feasible hypothesis. TDVP was developed
based on the hypothesis that consciousness is an integral part of reality and should
be included in the equations of physics. Also, we consider TDVP a paradigm
shift primarily because of the inclusion of consciousness, and if the third
form is neither mass nor energy, a quantized form of the conscious substrate is
the logical candidate. But many scientists regard this as very controversial, so
it is for this reason that we emphasize
the fact that what follows does not depend upon the hypothesis that
consciousness is the third form of the stuff of reality, but primarily upon the
logic of mathematical, geometrical and physical considerations.
COMING INSTALLMENTS: Particle Physics, TRUE Units, and the Third Form of Reality.
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