The Building Blocks of the Elements in TRUE Units
Particle

Charge

Mass/Energy

ג

Total
TRUE Units*

Volume

e

 3

1

105**

106

1,191,016

P^{+}

+ 2

17

7

24

13,824

N^{0}

 1

22

16

38

46,656

* Whether mass, energy or gimmel (ג), upon measurement, each TRUE unit occupies
the same volume, i.e. the minimal volume for an elementary particle as a spinning
object, as required by relativity and defined in TDVP as the basic unit of
volume. Each TRUE unit is capable of contributing to the structure of physical
reality as m, E or ג to form a particle, according
to the logical pattern in the substrate reflected in the Conveyance Equation, and
the relative volume of each particle (in the three dimensions of space) is
equal to the total number of TRUE units cubed times the shape factor. As noted
before, the shape factor cancels out in the Conveyance Equation. For this
reason, the righthand column in these tables contains cubed integer amounts representing
the Minimum Relative Equivalence Volume
(MREV) for each particle making up the combination of subatomic particles.
**The TRUE unit values for the elementary
particles are uniquely determined by conditions necessary for a stable universe.
The values for up and downquarks are the necessary values for the proton and
neutron, as determined above, and the number of ג
units and the total TRUE units for the electron are determined by calculating
the ג
units necessary to form a stable Helium atom. They also determine the smallest
possible stable atoms, Hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium, as shown below.
THE
SECONDARY LEVEL OF
SYMMETRIC STABILITY – ATOMS
Atoms
are semistable structures composed of electrons, protons and neutrons. They
are not as stable as protons and neutrons, but they are generally more stable
than molecules.
The Elements of the Periodic Table
The Hydrogen atom is unique among
the natural elements in that it has only two mass/energy components, the electron
and proton. Thus, because Fermat’s Last Theorem prohibits the symmetrical
combination of two symmetrical particles; they cannot combine to form stable
structures like the combination of quarks to form the proton and neutron. The
electron, with a small fraction of the mass of the proton, is drawn by electric
charge to whirl around the proton, seeking stability. This
means that the Hydrogen atom, the elemental building block of the universe,
composed only of the mass and energy of an electron and a proton, is inherently
unstable. So why is it that we have any stable structures at all; why is
there a universe? As Leibniz queried: “why
is there something rather than nothing”?
One of the X_{n} integers must be 24 to represent the TRUE unit value
of the proton, and among the integer solutions of the m = n = 3 conveyance equation listed above there are four solutions
with 24 as one of the X_{n} solution
integers. Nature is parsimonious, and we must never make a mathematical
description or demonstration any more complicated than it has to be. Therefore,
we start with the smallest solution with 24 as one of the X_{n} integers. It is 3^{3}
+ 18^{3} + 24^{3 }= 27^{3}. But it does
not contain an X_{n} equal
to 38, so we must continue, searching for an integer solution that contains
both 24 and 38 on the left side of the equation. Since there are no smaller integer solutions
with comultiples of 24 and 38 as terms in the left side of the equation, we
can use the solution that provided a stable Helium atom: 24^{3}
+ 38^{3} + 106^{3} = 108^{3}. Using it to represent the
Hydrogen atom, we have:
TRUEUnit Analysis
for Hydrogen 1 (Protium), Valence =  2 + 1 = 1
Particle

Charge

Mass/Energy

ג

Total
TRUE Units

Volume

e

 3

1

105

106

1,191,016

P^{+}

+ 3

17

7

24

13,824

C_{ג}*

0

0

38

38

54,872

Totals

0

18

150

168^{}

1,259,712=108^{3}

* Since the Proton
required 17 mass/energy units and 7 ג units, adding up to
24 Total TRUE units, to achieve triadic stability (see the Tables describing
the Proton), to achieve the same level of stability as the proton and neutron,
the Hydrogen atom must have a third additive component, C_{ג},
consisting of 38 ג units, the third form
of the ‘stuff’ of reality, not measureable as mass or energy in 3S1t. This
satisfies the conveyance equation and produces a stable Hydrogen atom with a total
volume of 108^{3}.
Without the ג units needed by Hydrogen to achieve stability, we would have no
universe. The TRUE units of two symmetrically stable entities, the electron and
proton, could not combine to form a third symmetrically stable entity (Fermat’s
Last Theorem). Because of the asymmetry of their form as two symmetric entities
of different sizes in TRUE units, they could not combine; they would spiral and
be easily separated by any external force. Even if they could adhere to other
particles, the resulting universe would be very boring. All multiples of such a
building block would have the same chemical characteristics. With the input of
the appropriate number of ג units, Hydrogen
is a basic building block of symmetrically stable forms in the 3S–1t observable
domain of the physical universe.
In 3S1t, TRUE units can manifest as
mass, energy or ג, in order to form symmetrically stable
particles and the 168 total TRUE units of the Hydrogen atom may be arranged in another
stable structural form, observed as the simple combination of one electron, one
proton and one neutron, known as Deuterium, an isotope of Hydrogen (an atom with the same chemical properties).
Hydrogen 2 (Deuterium), Valence = 2 + 1 = 1
Particle

Charge

Mass/Energy

ג

Total TRUE
Units

Volume

e


3

1

105

106

1,191,016

P^{+}

+
3

17

7

24

13,824

N^{0}

0

22

16

38

46,656

Totals

0

40

128

168

(108)^{3}

Hydrogen 2 (H2) is held together by
electrical charge and 128 ג units, 22
less than the H1 atom. This means that H2 is not as stable as H1. What about
other isotopes of H1? Is it possible that the TRUE units of a Hydrogen atom or
a Deuterium atom can combine with one or more additional neutrons to form stable
isotopes? Hydrogen 3 (H3), known as Tritium, is a second isotope of Hydrogen.
Its form in TRUE units is represented below.
Hydrogen 3 (Tritium), Valence =  2 + 1 = 1
Particle

Charge

Mass/Energy

ג

Total
TRUE
Units

Volume

e

 3

1

105

106

1,191,016

P^{+ }

+ 3

17

7

24

13,824

2N^{0}

0

44

32

76

438,976

Totals

0

62

144

206

(118.018…)^{3 }^{*}^{}

TO COME: The Three Levels of Stability, Summaries of TRUE Analyses, and Conclusions.
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