Wednesday, March 21, 2018


©Edward R. Close 2018 

First, I want to say on the behalf of Dr. Vernon Neppe and myself, that we are very appreciative of the increasing interest in our work. We have been working together on these innovative comprehensive scientific concepts for about ten years now, and separately for many years each before that. We are very excited that much of what we have been working for all these years is finally coming into fruition. At the request of several who are interested in this work, we are endeavoring to develop a series of at least four technical papers laying out the proof of the existence of a non-physical aspect of reality. The approach is laid out in this post.

A concise proof of the existence of gimmel, a non-physical component of the substance of reality, includes four necessary steps:

1.     The development of a system of natural quantum units similar to Planck units. These quantum units are like Planck units in principle, and in particular, in that space and time units are normalized by setting c, the speed of light, equal to unity. But, instead of normalizing the other four physical constants, as Planck units do, mass-energy equivalence units are normalized to the mass of the electron. This is justified because the electron has the smallest and most well-defined mass of the three elementary particles that make up the hadronic mass of the universe. These quantum equivalence units are developed using the Lorentz-Bohr-Dirac relativistic model of the hydrogen atom.

2.     The Derivation of precise representations of up- and down-quarks in quantum equivalence units from Large Hadron Collider data. Planck’s quantization of energy and Einstein’s definition of mass-energy equivalence were used in 2011 to develop the quantum equivalence unit, which I later called the Triadic Rotational Unit of Equivalence (TRUE).

3.     The development of the Calculus of Dimensional Distinctions (CoDD), using the TRUE as the basic unit of measurement. This calculus is similar to the calculus of indications developed by British logician George Spencer Brown in his book “Laws of Form”, but differs from, and goes beyond Brown’s calculus in several important ways. The CoDD is rendered applicable to physical analysis by defining the electron-based TRUE as its multi-dimensional basic unit. This application yields several advantages over the use of conventional mathematics including the calculus of Newton and Leibniz. It is a very powerful tool for analyzing quantum phenomena because the CoDD equations describing the combination of quarks to form protons and neutrons are Diophantine equations with integer solutions, and the analysis of physical phenomena starts with three-dimensional objects, which is where conventional mathematics becomes difficult and often even intractable. 

4.     The TRUE Analysis of the combination of up- and down-quarks to form protons and neutrons using the CoDD leads to the discovery of the necessity of a third form of sub-atomic reality: gimmel. This step is based on the principle that rotating objects, especially objects spinning at near light-speed angular velocities, must be symmetrical to be stable. With the Pythagorean Theorem and Fermat’s Last Theorem, two important number theory theorems that apply to quantized phenomena because the combination equations for elementary particles are Diophantine, we prove that the stability found in protons and neutrons is only attainable physically and mathematically if there is a third form of reality that is not detectable as mass or energy. The existence of this multi-dimensional third form affects the total angular momentum of compound rotating objects, like protons, neutrons and galaxies.

The presence of gimmel in fermions, and consequently in every hadronic particle, explains a number of experimental observations of phenomena not explainable otherwise, including the intrinsic spin of fermions, why quarks combine in threes, the exact physical characteristics of protons and neutrons, including mass and volume, how neutrons are formed, the exact value of the Cabibbo quark mixing angle, what Dark matter and dark energy are, why the elements of the Periodic Table that support conscious life are the most abundant elements in the universe, and much more.

It is obvious to us that the discovery of gimmel opens the door to a more comprehensive analysis of the reality we experience than ever before in the history of modern science. We appreciate the interest and comments of anyone interested in this work.

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