Friday, January 1, 2016

CONSCIOUSNESS,IN THE EQUATIONS, PART 16 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR STABILITY


THE TERTIARY LEVEL OF SYMMETRIC STABILITY – MOLECULAR BONDING (PART 16)

We’ve seen how quarks combine in very stable symmetric triads of TRUE units and how atoms form stable or semi-stable vortices, spinning structures consisting of stable triads of protons, neutrons and electrons. A third level of stable and semi-stable structures occurs as molecules are formed from more complex combinations of elemental atoms.

The Role of Valence

The number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom determines the observable identifying chemical characteristics of an element and with which other elements it can combine. Valence is a measure of reactivity, and is defined as the available spaces for electrons in the outermost shell of an atom, or the number of electrons available in the outer shell, whichever is smaller. Due to the quantized attractive force of electrical charges, arising from quantized angular momentum and spin, electrons are attracted to the oppositely charged protons in the nucleus of an atom. Electrons, having a mass of 1/17th of the effective mass of the protons, are also pulled by gravity into orbit around the protons of an atom, forming specific finite nested concentric dimensional domains called “shells” enclosing the atom. Valence affects the relative abundance of elements and compounds by determining whether they can combine with other elements and molecules, and with which ones.
Table 16A: TRUE size for each shell maxima
Shell # =
Quantum
No. n
Maximum number of electrons
( = 2n2 )
TRUE
maximum
(2n2 x106)
Examples of maximum
Outer shell elements
Atomic number
(Noble gases)
Shell #1
2
212
Helium
2
Shell #2
8
848
Neon
10
Shell #3
18
1908
Argon
18
Shell #4
32
3392
Krypton
36
Shell #5
50
5300
Xenon
54
Shell# 6
72
7632
Radon
86

Using TRUE unit analysis, we find that, as a consequence of the size of the atom and the electron in TRUE units, the first shell has a volume of 212 TRUE units, the exact volume of two electrons. The second shell, with a larger diameter, has a volume of 848 TRUE units, and thus can contain 848/106 = 8 electrons. The maximum number of electrons that each shell can accommodate can be found by determining the volumetric equivalence of each shell in TRUE units. The maximum number of electrons in shells 1 through 6, respectively, is 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, and 72. Therefore the TRUE size for each shell is as per Table 9.
As more complex atomic structures are formed by the addition of more of the building blocks, the finite volumes of the electron shells are filled with electrons, one after the other.
Atoms combine to form stable or semi-stable molecules in mathematically predictable ways, depending on the number of electrons in their outer-most shells. If an atom, even though electrically neutral and symmetrically stable, has room for one or more electrons in its outer shell, it can combine with another atom with that number of electrons in its outer shell to form a new structure.
An H1 should theoretically potentially be able to naturally combine with both positive and negative valence elements. This should make it particularly versatile but in reality it seems to combine with negative valences e.g. H+ and 0H- to H2O = water. But we do not see H- combining with cations.
For example, an H1 Hydrogen atom, which has one electron in its two-electron-capacity shell, can combine with Lithium+, which has its first shell filled, and one electron in its second shell. Yet in another example of electron bonding, two Hydrogen atoms, with a combined two electron deficiency in the outer shells, can bond with one Oxygen atom which has two electrons in its outer shell.
The first compound, Lithium Hydride, is never found in nature, while the second, H2O, is the most abundant compound in nature. Why?
We are now in a position to explain things with TRUE unit analysis that are not fully understood or well explained by the Standard Model of atomic structure. For example, why are some elements and compounds more abundant in nature than others? Why is the simple valence-bonded compound Lithium Hydride never found in nature, and is very unstable and yet reactive with other substances. In contrast, Hydrogen Hydroxide (water), an only slightly more complex compound, is very abundant in nature?
The current paradigm tries to explain compound bonding in terms of outer shell electrons, largely ignoring the rest of the atom. With TRUE-unit analysis, we see that when bonding occurs, some compounds are able to form symmetric structures, while others are not. Lithium Hydride is not able to do so. The reasons for this involve the total TRUE units of the whole structure, including the other electron shells and the nucleus, not just the outer electron shell.
To illustrate this point, we can compare the TRUE unit analyses for LiH and H2O.

Table 16B2 Lithium Hydride, Valence = 10 - 4 = 6
Atoms
Particles
Charge
Mass/
Energy
ג
Total TRUE Units
Volume
Li+H
4e
-12
4
420
424
76,225,024

4P+
+12
68
28
96
884,736

4N0+ Cג
0
88
102
190
6,859,000
Totals
0
0
160
512
672
83,968,760=(437. 89…)3

Lithium hydride is never found in nature; water is, of course, critically important and abundant, the most necessary life sustaining molecule. We would expect the gimmel score of water to be extremely high, if not the highest of any molecule. This turns out to be so when applying the compounds we have analyzed. Clearly, we would propose that water is a multiple of 108 cubed.
Table 16C1 H2O, Water, Valence = 10 - 10 = 0
Atoms
Particles
MawATER, LITHIUM HYDRIDEss/
Energy
ג
Total TRUE Units
Volume
2(H)+O
10e
10
1050
1060
1,191,016,000

10P+
170
70
240
13,824,000

8N0+2Cג
176
216
392
54,872,000

Totals
356
1,336
1,692
1,259,712,000 =
(1,080)3 =(10x108)3

Comparing the TRUE analysis for LiH with H2O, we can readily see why H2O is more stable, and consequently more abundant in nature. LiH is strongly electrically bonded, but symmetrically unstable, indicated by the fact that the total volume of H2S is not a cube, and has a valence of +2, while H2O is even more strongly bonded electrically, volumetrically stable, and has a stable outer electron shell with a valence of zero. H2O also has 824 more units of ג connecting it more firmly with the multi-dimensional substrate. Importantly, the lack of cations with Hydrogen combinations in nature, relate to the general inability to form stable combinations.
It is also instructive to compare H2O with H2S because both are triadic (combinations of three atoms) and they are electrically balanced. Why are they so different?
This is explained by the difference in atomic structure: Oxygen has 8 protons and 8 electrons while Sulfur has 16 of each. The outer shell of the Oxygen atom (shell #2) lacks 2 electrons, while the outer shell of Sulfur atom (shell #3) has room for 12. When an Oxygen atom combines with 2 Hydrogen atoms, there are no openings for additional electrons to form other compound molecules, thus the valance of water is zero, while H2S has 10 openings. In terms of TRUE analysis, molecules are to atoms as atoms are to sub-atomic particles, as elementary particles are to quarks and electrons, as quarks and electrons are to TRUE units.
Table 16D H2S, Hydrogen Sulfide, Valence = - 28 + 18 = 10
Atoms
Particles
Mass/Energy
ג
Total TRUE
Units
Volume
2(H)+S*
18e
18
1890
1908
6,946,005,312

18P+
306
126
432
80,621,568

18N0+2Cג
396
376
772
460,099,648

Totals
720
2,392
3,112
7,486,726,528
Cube root is 1956.27…
This is not integer
Gimmel to TRUE ratio for Hydrogen sulfide is 76.87%.

If one were just to try additively, it appears that Hydrogen Sulfide could also be symmetric for gimmel and would have as high a figure as water: This would be puzzling because why is it then not a key substance. But it turns out on calculation that as would be expected based on their empirical chemical properties, whereas H2O is symmetric in TRUE units, H2S is not! In addition, the ratio of gimmel to the total TRUE for water is 1336/1692 = 0.79 compared to 0.77 for H2S.


No comments:

Post a Comment