Monday, July 31, 2017



The big bang theory has been popular with the general public for more than half a century, but contrary to popular belief, the simplistic idea of a universe flying apart from a single explosion of an infinitely dense mathematical singularity (a dimensionless point) billions of years ago has never had unanimous support among physicists and cosmologists. The most obvious problem was that a straight-forward regression, or running backward in time in accordance with the general theory of relativity resulted in having stars that were older than the universe. This was side-stepped by Alan Guth’s rapid early inflation theory in 1981. There were other problems, and in 1989, I applied the Calculus of Distinctions to the red-shift constant-light-speed expanding-universe big bang and found that there were unresolved contradictions in the theory, indicating that the universe could not have originated in a singularity explosion. I also concluded that the universe has always existed in some form, and will always exist. I sent my findings to Stephen Hawking in 1989 and published them in 1990, but they were generally ignored by mainstream science. Professor Hawking responded that my ideas were interesting, but he didn’t have time to pursue them, and he had a problem with my assertion that time, like space, has to be three dimensional.
I am not the only one who had (has) problems with the big bang theory. The latest ripple comes from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). See the Daily Galaxy site:
From the article: “Correlated noise in the two LIGO gravitational-wave detectors may provide evidence that the universe is governed by conformal cyclic cosmology (CCC) which assumes that the universe consists of a succession of [big-bang] aeons, says Roger Penrose of the University of Oxford. Penrose proposes that the apparent noise is actually a real signal of gravitational waves generated by the decay of hypothetical dark-matter particles predicted by CCC. Penrose argues that a significant amount of this noise could be a signal of astrophysical or cosmological origin – and specifically CCC.
Last month, physicists at the Niels Bohr Institute, writes Hamish Johnston, editor of, pointed out that some of the noise in the two LIGO detectors appears to be correlated – with a delay that corresponds to the time it takes for a gravitational wave to travel the more than 3000 km between the [recording] instruments [of the interferometer].

First proposed over a decade ago by Penrose, CCC assumes that each aeon begins with a big bang and proceeds into an unending future in which the universe expands at an accelerating rate. As this expansion becomes infinitely large, Penrose argues that it can be transformed back into the next big bang.”
This is a huge departure from the popular big bang theory and abandons the idea of an absolute beginning or end. After more than 27 years, Roger Penrose, co-author of the Penrose-Hawking Mathematical Singularity Theorems, appears to be agreeing with some of my 1989 findings.

Edward R. Close, July 31, 2017

1 comment:

  1. Your 1989 findings, Ed, certainly suit the cosmogony of my own 1980, mystically-inspired, ad infinitum, calculus-formula, 'Y=X(0,1,2,3,4)Squared plus One', which has already been made well known to and appreciated by you - So, this latest comment is only to serve as a generalized reiteration of much already discussed between us, both overtly and privately on your sites - I remain ever hopeful that we can eventually come into full accord on the subject in order to serve both the overriding aspirations of the Ultimate Force and Its ongoing quest for the everlasting future of humanity! IJN!