What follows is a brief summary of a paper I'm currenntly submiting to about a dozen scientists for peer review prior to publication.

**QUANTUM MATHEMATICS FOR QUANTUM REALITY**

The TRUE Quantum Unit and the Third Form of Reality

**Edward R. Close 2/11/17**

^{©}
PARTICLE/WAVE
EQUIVALENCE

In this section I discuss the work of Max Planck and Albert
Einstein upon whose ideas this paper builds.

THE NEED FOR
A QUANTUM MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM OF LOGIC

In this
section I explain why Newtonian calculus is inappropriate for application to
quantum phenomena, and why the application of the calculus in particle physics
gives rise to unnecessary “quantum weirdness”.

**in any meaningful representation of the physical universe, all of the basic measurable variables: mass, energy, space, and time, must be quantized, and therefore, Newtonian calculus does not work for quantum phenomena. For the proper analysis of quantized reality, a new calculus is required. This calculus must be a system of quantized mathematical logic based on natural quantum units.**
DEFINING THE
BASICS OF QUANTUM MATHEMATICS

E = mc

^{2}applied to the electron
Matter/energy Equivalence and the Masses of the Elementary
Particles

QUANTIZATION
OF SPACE-TIME

*Max Planck said; “There is no matter as such” and Albert Einstein said: “The concept of empty space has no meaning.”*

In
this section I calculate the velocity of the electron in orbit around the
Hydrogen atom.

QUANTIZATION
OF ANGULAR AND ELECTRON SPIN

Calculating the angular velocity (spin) of the
free electron, we find that it reaches the speed of light before its volume
shrinks to zero. This allows us to calculate the minimum volume of the particle
with minimum mass. Normalizing the speed of light allows us to define quantum equivalence units for space
and time. A complete table of natural quantum equivalence units is presented in
this section.

QUANTUM
CALCULUS: The Calculus of Dimensional Distinctions (CoDD)

In a quantized reality, the concept of a point, or
mathematical singularity, is replaced by the existential single three-dimensional
quantum.

*The quantum equivalence unit should not be confused with a physical particle.***The fact that an up-quark has the mass of 4 electrons does**

*The quantum equivalence units are units of measurement, not particles.**not*mean that an up-quark

*contains*4 electrons, and the fact that an electron has one quantum equivalence unit of mass does not mean that it does not have additional quantum equivalence units of energy, space and time associated with it.

The CoDD system of
units is in some ways similar to some of the existing ‘natural’ units because
it sets the speed of light equal to unity (

**c =**1). But it does not directly naturalize the other ‘universal’ constants. An important feature of this normalization of the mass of the electron and the basic measurement units of the four directly measurable features of physical reality: mass, energy, space and time, is that it ensures that all measurements of quantized reality in the CoDD system will be*integers*.
HOW DO
PARTICLES COMBINE TO FORM STABLE STRUCTURES?

In this section I discuss the disparity between the
stability of the proton and other particles. For example, the proton has a
half-life decay longer than the big-bang age of the universe, while the
half-life of a free neutron is about 10 to 15 minutes.

Elementary
Particles and Fermat’s Last Theorem

Fermat’s Last Theorem
is famous among mathematicians because it was unsolved for more than 300 years.
Its importance here comes from the fact that the possibility of certain combinations of elementary particles
is eliminated by Fermat’s Last Theorem, which says that the equation (X

_{1})^{m}+ (X_{2})^{m}= Z^{m }has no integer solutions when m > 2, while (X_{1})^{3}+ (X_{2})^{3}+ (X_{3})^{3}= Z^{3}does have solutions. This is why elementary particles like quarks cannot combine in pairs, but do combine in triples.
THE TRUE
QUANTUM EQUIVALENCE UNIT AND THE THIRD FORM OF REALITY

In
this section I prove that there has to be a third form of reality, not
detectable as matter or energy, for there to be any life-supporting stable
atoms.

THE ORIGIN
OF MASS

In this
section, I state two hypotheses about mass and particle spin in extra dimensions:

*I. At the quantum level, mass is nothing more and nothing less than resistance to acceleration due to the angular momentum and moments of inertia of spinning particles.*

*II. Elementary particles have spin components in multiple dimensional planes.*

(Acceleration is defined as
any change in motion. Angular momentum and moment of inertia are defined as in
classical mechanics and general relativity.)

I spend most
of the rest of the paper demonstrating their validity with calculations and tables
describing the origin of neutrons and the isotopes of Hydrogen and their role
in the existence of the rest of the elements of the Periodic Table.

THE
UNDERLYING PATTERN

This section presents calculations and a table showing the
pattern of creation of the natural elements from Hydrogen and its two isotopes:
Deuterium and Tritium.

WHAT IS
GIMMEL?

Gimmel is the
third form of reality, not directly measurable as mass or energy that
nevertheless completes the symmetry of the combinations of elementary
particles, making it possible for a complex physical universe with atomic and
molecular structures supportive of life to exist.

*Gimmel can manifest as either mass or energy, as needed to maintain symmetry and stability, and plays a role in the conservation of mass and energy.***.**

*The hypotheses proposed in this paper concerning the origin of mass and the multi-dimensional spin of elementary particles have been demonstrated to be valid because results obtained with them are consistent with empirical experimental data to a level of accuracy that would not be possible if they were not valid*
With the application of the quantum
mathematics of the CoDD, the mathematical imperative of Fermat’s Last Theorem,
and the symmetry of multi-dimensional spinning elementary particles, it is
possible to explain a number of things unexplained or only vaguely explained in
the current standard model paradigm. These things include, but are not limited
to: the variable mass of combined particles, the intrinsic spin of fermions

^{30}, and the Cabibbo mixing angle of quarks^{31}. Recognition of the existence of a**not directly measureable as mass or energy provides a new avenue for investigation of paranormal and rare event phenomena, especially if gimmel can be shown to be related to consciousness.***multi-dimensional third form of reality***REFERENCES:**

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*Transcendental Physics*, Paradigm Press, 1997, iuniverse, 2000
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Consciousness, BrainVoyage.com, 2016

17. Close ER, Neppe VM: The
Calculus of Distinctions: A workable mathematicologic model across dimensions
and consciousness.

*Dynamic International Journal of Exceptional Creative Achievement*1210: 1210; 2387 -2397, 2012.
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*Scientific Method in Practice, Cambridge University Press*, 2003 Occam’s razor
24. Close, ER and Neppe, VM Putting
Consciousness into the Equations of Mathematics: the third substance Gimmel and TRUE, IQNexus J 7:4;
7-‐119, 2015 v2 151221© ECAO

25. Trimble,
V. (1987). "Existence and nature of dark matter in the universe",
Annual Review of Astronomy and
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**25**: 425–472.
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ER, Neppe VM: The TRUE unit: triadic rotational units of equivalence (TRUE) and
the third form of reality: gimmel; the conveyance equation (Part 12).

*IQNexus Journal*7: 4; 55-65, 2015.
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*New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level*, Chapter 4: Nelson Thornes, Rotational Dynamics, p 54-65, 2000
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30. Close ER, Neppe VM: The eighth
conundrum: angular momentum and intrinsic electron spin. IQNexus Journal 7: 2; 44-45, 2015

31. Close ER, Neppe VM: The seventh
conundrum: the mathematical derivation of the Cabibbo mixing angle in fermions.
IQNexus Journal 7: 2; 41-43, 2015

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