Tuesday, January 26, 2016



Most people, mathematicians and physicists included, think that the math of relativity and quantum physics is necessarily more complicated than the math of classical physics. But, as pointed out in the last post, physicists are using an inappropriate calculus, a calculus that doesn’t apply at the quantum scale. This misapplication of the calculus of Newton and Leibniz has caused many physicists to believe that the rules, i.e., the laws of physics, are different at the quantum scale than they are at the everyday macro-scale. If this were the case, then there would be a point on the scale of measurement where the macro-laws switch over to the quantum scale laws. But this is not the case.

The brilliant Hungarian-born physicist and mathematician John von Neumann, considered by many to be second only to Einstein as a scientific genius, proved that there is no such ‘switch-over’ point, and that all physical systems are quantum systems. This means that the apparent incompatibility of quantum mechanics and relativity is caused by the misapplication of mathematics rather than a real physical difference.

On the universal scale of size, we exist in the middle, that is to say, the scale of ordinary objects we observe and measure in our laboratories are about half way between the size of atoms and the size of galaxies. We know that the sub-atomic particles that make up the physical universe are quantized, extremely small and that they are spinning at extreme angular velocities. By ‘quantized’ we mean that every particle of physical reality is a whole-number (integer) multiple of a very small unit.

Note: From this point on, you are entering the realm of new science. What follows is a ‘thought experiment’, published here for the first time.

Suppose we magnify the quantum world to the point that an elementary particle appears to be about the size of a baseball. Further suppose that your consciousness merges with the quantum world. What would that experience be like? To find out, let’s take Planck, Einstein and von Neumann, the three leading scientific geniuses of the 20th century, at their word. Planck said that the substance of reality is quantized, and that matter and energy occur only in integer multiples of a basic quantum unit. Einstein said that mass and energy are simply two forms of the same thing, and von Neumann said all reality, from the single quantum unit to the largest galaxy in the universe, are quantum systems. Furthermore, Planck said that there is no matter as such, what appears to be solid matter is energy, and the source of that energy must be an infinite intelligent mind; Einstein said that just as mass and energy have a lower limit in the extent to which they can be divided: the quantum, there is an upper limit on movement or velocity, relative to a stationary observer: the speed of light; and von Neumann said that the transfer of quanta of mass/energy ends in the consciousness of the observer as information. These conclusions, based on the discoveries and the empirical validations of relativity and quantum physics, make our experience of the quantum world very different from our experience of the macro-world of everyday life in a physical body.

Does this contradict von Neumann's conclusion that the difference, sometimes called the 'Heisenberg cut' between the macro world and the quantum world, does not exist? No, because this difference occurs at the end of the descent from the macro to the bottom, the smallest quantum, and the rules we find at the end of divisibility of substance are the logical rules of the calculus of distinctions, that also apply at the macro level, where the rules of the Newton Leibniz calculus becomes a less accurate sub-set of the rules of the calculus of distinctions.

In the quantum world, the substance of reality consists of three forms, measurable as quanta of mass, energy and a third form. And reality is encompassed in nine dimensions of extent: Three of space, measurable in multiples of integers, three of time, measurable in imaginary numbers, and three of consciousness, measurable in complex numbers. Thus we see that the quantum world reflects the structure of quantification discovered by mathematicians, and obeys the logic of the theorems of the discipline known as number theory. The lower limit of the quantum and the upper limit of relative velocity combine to define a basic mass/energy/space/time equivalence unit we call the triadic rotational equivalence unit, or the TRUE quantum unit for short.

This may sound like the product of a fanciful imagination, but it is not. The TRUE quantum unit is derived mathematically from the empirical data of particle colliders, and known principles of mathematical physics. The details of this derivation have been published in a number of technical papers and the book “Reality Begins with Consciousness” by Neppe and Close.

The TRUE quantum unit normalizes all measurements to integers, so that equations describing the combination of elementary particles are integer equations, known to mathematicians as Diophantine equations. This simply means that the relevant solutions to these equations are integer multiples of the TRUE quantum unit. This, along with two well-known mathematical theorems, simplifies Theorem. They determine how elementary particles combine to form stable structures.

In the next post, we will look at how the TRUE quantum unit relates to quarks, electrons, protons and neutrons, and why the calculus of distinctions is the perfect mathematical/logical system to describe multi-dimensional quantized reality in the simplest possible way.

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