Saturday, February 11, 2017


What follows is a brief summary of a paper I'm currenntly submiting to about a dozen scientists for peer review prior to publication.

The TRUE Quantum Unit and the Third Form of Reality
© Edward R. Close 2/11/17

In this section I discuss the work of Max Planck and Albert Einstein upon whose ideas this paper builds.
In this section I explain why Newtonian calculus is inappropriate for application to quantum phenomena, and why the application of the calculus in particle physics gives rise to unnecessary “quantum weirdness”.

in any meaningful representation of the physical universe, all of the basic measurable variables: mass, energy, space, and time, must be quantized, and therefore, Newtonian calculus does not work for quantum phenomena. For the proper analysis of quantized reality, a new calculus is required. This calculus must be a system of quantized mathematical logic based on natural quantum units.

E = mc2 applied to the electron
Matter/energy Equivalence and the Masses of the Elementary Particles


Max Planck said; “There is no matter as such” and Albert Einstein said: “The concept of empty space has no meaning.”

In this section I calculate the velocity of the electron in orbit around the Hydrogen atom. 
 Calculating the angular velocity (spin) of the free electron, we find that it reaches the speed of light before its volume shrinks to zero. This allows us to calculate the minimum volume of the particle with minimum mass. Normalizing the speed of light allows us to  define quantum equivalence units for space and time. A complete table of natural quantum equivalence units is presented in this section.

QUANTUM CALCULUS: The Calculus of Dimensional Distinctions (CoDD)
In a quantized reality, the concept of a point, or mathematical singularity, is replaced by the existential single three-dimensional quantum.

The quantum equivalence unit should not be confused with a physical particle. The quantum equivalence units are units of measurement, not particles. The fact that an up-quark has the mass of 4 electrons does not mean that an up-quark contains 4 electrons, and the fact that an electron has one quantum equivalence unit of mass does not mean that it does not have additional quantum equivalence units of energy, space and time associated with it.

The CoDD system of units is in some ways similar to some of the existing ‘natural’ units because it sets the speed of light equal to unity (c = 1). But it does not directly naturalize the other ‘universal’ constants. An important feature of this normalization of the mass of the electron and the basic measurement units of the four directly measurable features of physical reality: mass, energy, space and time, is that it ensures that all measurements of quantized reality in the CoDD system will be integers.

In this section I discuss the disparity between the stability of the proton and other particles. For example, the proton has a half-life decay longer than the big-bang age of the universe, while the half-life of a free neutron is about 10 to 15 minutes.

Elementary Particles and Fermat’s Last Theorem

Fermat’s Last Theorem is famous among mathematicians because it was unsolved for more than 300 years. Its importance here comes from the fact that the possibility of  certain combinations of elementary particles is eliminated by Fermat’s Last Theorem, which says that the equation (X1)m + (X2)m = Zm  has no integer solutions when m > 2, while (X1)3 + (X2)3 + (X3)3 = Z3 does have solutions. This is why elementary particles like quarks cannot combine in pairs, but do combine in triples.

In this section I prove that there has to be a third form of reality, not detectable as matter or energy, for there to be any life-supporting stable atoms.

In this section, I state two hypotheses about mass and particle spin in extra dimensions:

I. At the quantum level, mass is nothing more and nothing less than resistance to acceleration due to the angular momentum and moments of inertia of spinning particles.
II. Elementary particles have spin components in multiple dimensional planes.

(Acceleration is defined as any change in motion. Angular momentum and moment of inertia are defined as in classical mechanics and general relativity.)
I spend most of the rest of the paper demonstrating their validity with calculations and tables describing the origin of neutrons and the isotopes of Hydrogen and their role in the existence of the rest of the elements of the Periodic Table.

This section presents calculations and a table showing the pattern of creation of the natural elements from Hydrogen and its two isotopes: Deuterium and Tritium.

Gimmel is the third form of reality, not directly measurable as mass or energy that nevertheless completes the symmetry of the combinations of elementary particles, making it possible for a complex physical universe with atomic and molecular structures supportive of life to exist.

Gimmel can manifest as either mass or energy, as needed to maintain symmetry and stability, and plays a role in the conservation of mass and energy.

The hypotheses proposed in this paper concerning the origin of mass and the multi-dimensional spin of elementary particles have been demonstrated to be valid because results obtained with them are consistent with empirical experimental data to a level of accuracy that would not be possible if they were not valid.

With the application of the quantum mathematics of the CoDD, the mathematical imperative of Fermat’s Last Theorem, and the symmetry of multi-dimensional spinning elementary particles, it is possible to explain a number of things unexplained or only vaguely explained in the current standard model paradigm. These things include, but are not limited to: the variable mass of combined particles, the intrinsic spin of fermions 30, and the Cabibbo mixing angle of quarks 31. Recognition of the existence of a multi-dimensional third form of reality not directly measureable as mass or energy provides a new avenue for investigation of paranormal and rare event phenomena, especially if gimmel can be shown to be related to consciousness.

1. Planck, M: The Theory of Heat Radiation. Translated by Masius, M.P., Blakiston’s Sons & Co, 1912.
2. Einstein, A: Explanation of the photoelectric effect with use of the quantum hypothesis of Planck: Concerning a heuristic point of view toward the emission and transformation of light. Annalen der Physik 17: 132-148,  1905.
3. Broglie, L: Recherches sur la théorie des quanta (Researches on the quantum theory), Thesis, Paris,   1924, Ann. de Physique (10) 3, 22
4. Baron, Margaret E: The Origins of the Infinitesimal Calculus, Courier Corporation, 1969 
5. Einstein A: Relativity, the special and the general theory 15 Edition. New York: Crown Publishers,       1952.
6. Minkowski, Hermann: "Raum und Zeit", 80. Versammlung Deutscher Naturforscher (Köln,             1908). Physikalische Zeitschrift 10 104-111 (1909) and Jahresbericht der Deutschen             Mathematiker-Vereinigung 18 75-88 (1909). For an English translation, see Lorentz et al. (1952)
7. Planck, M: Max Planck:  Scientific Autobiography and Other Papers. New York: Harper 1949.
8. Einstein, A: Note to the Fifteenth Edition, Relativity, the special and the general theory 15 Edition .            New York: Crown Publishers, p. vi, 1952.
9. Einstein, A: "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" , Annalen der Physik, 322 (10): 891–921, 1905
10. Fetter, A.L. &  Walecka, D.J: Theoretical Mechanics of Particles and Continua, Courier             Corporation, Dec 16, 2003
11. Cotton, A.F., and Wilkinson, G.: Advance Inorganic Chemistry (5th ed., John Wiley 1988)             p.1381 ISBN 0-471-84997-9
12. Brown, G. S.: Laws of Form, New York: Julian Press, 1977
13. Close, E.R.: Infinite Continuity, Paradigm Press, 1990
14. Ibid: Transcendental Physics, Paradigm Press, 1997, iuniverse, 2000
15. Brandin V, Close ER: The calculus of dimensional distinctions: Elements of mathematical theory of              intellect, Moscow, 2003
16. Neppe, V.M., & Close, E.R.: Reality Begins With Consciousness,, 2016
17. Close ER, Neppe VM: The Calculus of Distinctions: A workable mathematicologic model across dimensions and consciousness. Dynamic International Journal of Exceptional Creative Achievement 1210: 1210; 2387 -2397,  2012.
19., “Proton lifetime is longer than 1034 years", 25 November 2009
20. Schwinger, Julian: The Theory of Quantized Fields I. Physical Review. 82. p. 914, 1951
21. Singh, Simon: Fermat's Enigma: The Epic Quest to Solve the World's Greatest Mathematical   Problem, Fourth Estate, Ltd. 1997
22. Cho, Adrian (April 2010). "Mass of the Common Quark Finally Nailed Down". Science Magazine April 2012
23. Hugh G. Gauch, Scientific Method in Practice, Cambridge University Press, 2003 Occam’s razor
24. Close, ER and Neppe, VM Putting Consciousness into the Equations of Mathematics: the third   substance Gimmel and TRUE, IQNexus J 7:4; 7-­119, 2015 v2 151221© ECAO
25. Trimble, V. (1987). "Existence and nature of dark matter in the universe", Annual Review of         Astronomy and Astrophysics 25: 425–472.
26. Close ER, Neppe VM: The TRUE unit: triadic rotational units of equivalence (TRUE) and the third form of reality: gimmel; the conveyance equation (Part 12). IQNexus Journal 7: 4; 55-65, 2015.
27. Breithaupt, J: New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level, Chapter 4: Nelson Thornes,           Rotational Dynamics, p 54-65, 2000
28. Silk, Joseph: Horizons of Cosmology. Templeton Press. p. 208, 2009
29. Basdevant, Jean-Louis; Rich, James; Spiro, Michael (2005). Fundamentals in Nuclear Physics: From      Nuclear Structure to Cosmology, Chapter 4: 4.3.2, b decay of nuclei, p.202, Springer.
30. Close ER, Neppe VM: The eighth conundrum: angular momentum and intrinsic electron           spin. IQNexus Journal 7: 2; 44-45, 2015
31. Close ER, Neppe VM: The seventh conundrum: the mathematical derivation of the Cabibbo mixing angle in fermions. IQNexus Journal 7: 2; 41-43, 2015

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