## Friday, October 4, 2019

### THE DISCOVERY OF THE NON-PHYSICAL IN PHYSICAL REALITY

DISCOVERY OF THE NATUTRE OF REALITY BEYOND MATTER AND ENERGY
© Edward R. Close, October 2019

Introduction
This post was prompted by questions raised by Dr. Jeffery Mishlove when he interviewed me for his program "New Thinking Allowed". The interviews are scheduled to be aired on Youtube starting October 11.

The discovery of the third form of the essence of reality occurred about seven or eight years ago, when I was working out the math and physics of the volumetric quantum-equivalence unit I call the Triadic Rotational Unit of Equivalence (TRUE). I was developing this unit for use as the basic unit of measurement of the quantum calculus that I called the Calculus of Dimensional Distinctions (CoDD). Dr. Vernon Neppe and I decided to use gimmel, the third letter of the Hebrew alphabet, to represent the third form of reality, a form that cannot be measured as mass or energy - but, never-the-less, adds to the total angular momentum of rotating elementary objects, like electrons, quarks and protons – and is necessary for the very existence of any and all stable structures in the physical universe.

We needed a unique symbol to represent this new third component in the equations describing the mathematical structure of reality, and gimmel was appropriate for a number of reasons. The derivation that resulted in the discovery of gimmel has been published in several peer-reviewed papers and three books, as of this moment, but the purpose of this essay is to explain, in plain English that anyone can understand, the reasoning that led up to this important discovery.

The Need for a Quantum Calculus
The calculus used extensively in mainstream science today is the calculus of Newton and Leibniz, developed over 350 years ago. Newtonian calculus is based on two assumptions about reality: 1) the assumption that expressions describing reality can be considered to be continuous functions, and 2) the assumption that variables of measurement are infinitesimally divisible. But we have known for at least 100 years that our reality is quantized; and such functions and variables cannot describe objects that exist in quantized reality. Newtonian calculus is accurate and very useful for solving problems on the scale of limited human perception, e.g. the directly observable and easily measurable every-day scale of human bodies, automobiles, buildings, airplanes and missiles, but it is inappropriate for application at the quantum or cosmological scale. Reality exists in discrete quanta that cannot be divided indefinitely, and thus there is a “bottom” to quantized reality, beyond which no further division is possible. Much of the so-called “quantum weirdness” physicists like to talk about is simply the result of inappropriate applications of Newtonian calculus at the quantum level.

Quantum Calculus and the Quantum Equivalence Unit
Any system of observation and measurement, to be mathematically consistent, must have a well-defined basic unit, and in a quantized reality, it is most efficient to define that basic unit as equivalent to the quantization of the smallest elementary object. In our quantized reality, that happens to be the electron. Using the data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and naturalizing our measurement system by setting the mass and volume of the free electron equal to one, we find that the normalized masses of the up-quark and down-quark, the components of the proton, are, respectively: 4 quantum mass equivalent units and 9 quantum mass equivalent units. We show later, that these values are also consistent with the known formulae for angular momentum.

We already have mass/energy equivalence defined in the equation made famous by Albert  Einstein: E = mc2, and physicists have also naturalized light-speed by setting c = 1, so all we have left to do, to have a fully naturalized mass-energy-space-time volumetric quantum equivalence unit to use as the basis of our quantum calculus, is normalize the up- and down-quark masses from LHC data to the inertial rest-mass of the electron and convert all units to volumetric quantum equivalence units. This turns out to be relatively easy to do because of the limitation of all motion relative to the observer to the speed of light. Every step of this derivation is included in published articles, books and is posted on this Transcendental Physics blog.

Derivation of the Diophantine Equations that Describe Quantum Reality
After defining the minimum quantum equivalence unit (the TRUE) of both mass/energy and space/time, elementary particles can be described in terms that consist of whole numbers of these units. This reflects the simple definition of quantization: The measures of quanta can only be divided to the point of the one TRUE, no further divisions are possible. This means that all measurements in a quantized calculus are volumetric, occupying domains of at least three dimensions, and stable forms of matter and energy can only exist in multiples of these units. This means that when elementary particles are combined, the combination will also consist of a whole number (integer) multiple of TRUE. Equations describing combinations of elementary particles will then be Diophantine equations. i.e., equations involving variables that may only take on integer values. For example, if A and B represent elementary particles, whose measures are multiples of TRUE, then A + B = C represents the combination of those elementary particles to form a new object, C, which must also contain a whole number of TRUE.

When we add the physical fact that A and B are stable, rapidly-spinning objects, as in the case of up-quarks and down-quarks combining to form protons, we see that as spinning objects, A and B are three-dimensional. So the volume of each spinning object is a function of its radius of rotation. Rotating objects occupy spherical volumes, so we have A = 4/3π(r1)3 and B = 4/3π(r2)3 where r1 and r2 are the radii of rotation of A and B. The angular momentum of A and B are conserved in their combined form, and if C is to be a stable spinning object, then C = 4/3π(r3)3, where r3 is the radius of rotation of C. But the shape factor cancels out, so the equation becomes (r1)3+(r2)3=(r3)3, where, due to relativistic effects, ri and r2 are integer multiples of TRUE. The form of this equation is x3 + y3 = z3 , which is the equation of Fermat’s Last Theorem when n = 3. But Fermat’s Last Theorem tells us that there are no integer solutions for this equation. In other words, if r1 and r2 are integers, r3 cannot be an integer, and C cannot occupy a volume equal to a symmetrical rotating object made up of an integral number of TRUE.

The equation (x1)3 + (x2)3 = z3 is just one of a family of equations generated by the expression which I call the Conveyance Expression.

The next simplest equation generated by this expression is (x1)3 + (x2)3 + (x3)3 = z3, which does have integer solutions. This tells us that while no two TRUE elementary particles can combine to form a third stable symmetrically spinning object, three such elementary particles can combine to form a fourth stable spinning object. This explains why quarks combine in triads to form protons, the most stable compound form in the universe, not twos or fours.

The Necessity of the Existence of Gimmel, the Non-Physical Form of Reality
By determining the integer values of x1, x2, x3, and z that satisfy the conveyance equation for our 3-D physical observations and measurements, we find that no stable forms are possible without the existence of a third form of the essence of reality that can be neither mass nor energy. Like the mysterious stuff of dark matter and dark energy, it exists and adds to the total angular momentum of the quarks that make up the stable structures of reality we call the physical universe; but since it cannot be measured as either mass or energy, it is non-physical by definition.

In the process of discovering how this works, we also discover why mass and energy are physically equivalent and convertible from one to the other, and how the appearance of solid matter, measured as inertial mass, i.e., the resistance to motion in any direction, is caused by the angular momentum of elementary objects rapidly spinning in three planes. This explanation of how mass arises also applies to combinations of elementary particles. Mass defined as the resistance to motion as an effect of spin in three orthogonal planes, leads to the mathematical determination of the mass of the proton, which exactly equals the mass determined empirically in experiment, and the explanation of why the mass of the proton is so much greater than the combination of the masses of the elementary particles that combine to form them. This approach, which can be termed TRUE analysis, also explains other known phenomena that are not satisfactorily explained by the Standard Model of mainstream particle physics, like the nature of dark matter and dark energy, the value of the Cabibbo quark-mixing angle, the and the mass of the neutron in combination with protons in stable atoms.

What is Gimmel?
We have shown that gimmel is a necessary part of reality without which no physical universe would exist. But if gimmel is not matter or energy, what is it? Here, I have to fall back on a statement by Niels Bohr, the famous Danish physicist, who said, when writing about science in Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge:

“In our description of nature the purpose is not to disclose the real essence of the phenomena but only to track down, as far as possible, relations between the manifold aspects of our experience.”

I take from this that Bohr is saying that in science, we can only describe that which we experience. But the only thing we experience directly is consciousness. Everything else is only known to us by inference. We experience objects that we take to be outside our conscious selves very indirectly through the chains of energy transference that we call perception. So our experience is comprised of awareness of self as consciousness and the awareness of other as objects comprised of matter, energy, time. and space. According to quantum field theory, time and space are artifacts of the interaction of consciousness with matter and energy; they have no existence of their own. So, if gimmel is neither matter nor energy (because if it were measurable as mass or energy, its presence would change the mass and/or energy of the combining quarks, and they would register as something else when observed or measured in LHC experiments), the only thing remaining is consciousness. This is consistent with the fact that gimmel organizes the stuff of the physical universe (mass and energy) in such a way that structures of mass and energy can form vehicles through which conscious reality can see and experience itself. It should not surprise us that consciousness exists as the organizer of matter and energy in every particle of physical reality.

Bohr also said, when talking about quantum reality:

“Everything we call real is made up of things that cannot be regarded as real.”

This explains why mainstream scientists think quantum reality is weird, and illustrates the fallacy of the assumption that everything must fit into the box of physicalism. If we restrict reality to matter and energy interacting in time and space, our experience of it will ultimately make no sense. In accordance with Gӧdel’s incompleteness theorems, reality will always expand beyond any finite box within which we attempt to confine it.

ERC 10/04/2019